Austria says it has begun work to tighten immigration controls at a key north-south European crossing point.
Police say concrete was poured on Tuesday as building commenced of a control centre at the Brenner crossing on the border with Italy in the Alps.
It is the latest in a series of hardline steps taken by Austria to clamp down on migration.
But the EU, Germany and Italy, as well as refugee agencies, have criticised the measures.
Aid groups say the steps effectively mean decisions on asylum will be made within minutes or hours at border centres.